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When created, the Três Picos State Park was divided between the municipalities of Cachoeiras de Macacu (48.92%), Guapimirim (4.21%), Nova Friburgo (19.26%), Silva Jardim (7.53%) and Teresópolis (20.08%} in the state of Rio de Janeiro. As of 2016 about two thirds of the area was in the municipality of Cachoeiras de Macacu. The park is named after the Três Picos (Three Peaks) mountains, which reach 2,316 metres (7,598 ft) in altitude, and are considered to be the center of the Serra do Mar range. The peaks present over 100 routes of varying levels of difficulty to climbers. There are dozens of waterfalls of great beauty in Cachoeiras de Macacu.
The state park is the largest in Rio de Janeiro, and preserves a large portion of Atlantic Forest in excellent condition. The park has the greatest biodiversity found in Rio de Janeiro due to the range in altitude from 100 to 2,316 metres (328 to 7,598 ft). Vegetation ranges from dense sub-montane rainforest to cloud forest and alpine meadows. It is considered a priority for conservation. It is home to endangered species such as hawks and cougar (Puma concolor) that require large areas of preserved environment within which to find their prey. It also includes a variety of arthropods, fish, amphibians and reptiles.